A defect in code added to support QNAME minimization can cause named to exit with an assertion failure if a forwarder returns a referral rather than resolving the query.
Mirror zones are a BIND feature allowing recursive servers to pre-cache zone data provided by other servers. A mirror zone is similar to a zone of type secondary, except that its data is subject to DNSSEC validation before being used in answers, as if it had been looked up via traditional recursion, and when mirror zone data cannot be validated, BIND falls back to using traditional recursion instead of the mirror zone. However, an error in the validity checks for the incoming zone data can allow an on-path attacker to replace zone data that was validated with a configured trust anchor with forged data of the attacker's choosing. The mirror zone feature is most often used to serve a local copy of the root zone. If an attacker was able to insert themselves into the network path between a recursive server using a mirror zone and a root name server, this vulnerability could then be used to cause the recursive server to accept a copy of falsified root zone data. An on-path attacker who manages to successfully exploit this vulnerability can replace the mirrored zone (usually the root) with data of their own choosing, effectively bypassing DNSSEC protection.
A race condition which may occur when discarding malformed packets can result in BIND exiting due to a REQUIRE assertion failure in dispatch.c. An attacker who can cause a resolver to perform queries which will be answered by a server which responds with deliberately malformed answers can cause named to exit, denying service to clients.
By design, BIND is intended to limit the number of TCP clients that can be connected at any given time. The number of allowed connections is a tunable parameter which, if unset, defaults to a conservative value for most servers. Unfortunately, the code which was intended to limit the number of simultaneous connections contains an error which can be exploited to grow the number of simultaneous connections beyond this limit.
In BIND Supported Preview Edition, an error in the nxdomain-redirect feature can occur in versions which support EDNS Client Subnet (ECS) features. In those versions which have ECS support, enabling nxdomain-redirect is likely to lead to BIND exiting due to assertion failure.
A programming error in the nxdomain-redirect feature can cause an assertion failure in query.c if the alternate namespace used by nxdomain-redirect is a descendant of a zone that is served locally.The most likely scenario where this might occur is if the server, in addition to performing NXDOMAIN redirection for recursive clients, is also serving a local copy of the root zone or using mirroring to provide the root zone, although other configurations are also possible.
Controls for zone transfers may not be properly applied to Dynamically Loadable Zones (DLZs) if the zones are writable. A client exercising this defect can request and receive a zone transfer of a DLZ even when not permitted to do so by the allow-transfer ACL.
"managed-keys" is a feature which allows a BIND resolver to automatically maintain the keys used by trust anchors which operators configure for use in DNSSEC validation. Due to an error in the managed-keys feature it is possible for a BIND server which uses managed-keys to exit due to an assertion failure if, during key rollover, a trust anchor's keys are replaced with keys which use an unsupported algorithm.