get_gate_page in mm/gup.c in the Linux kernel 5.7.x and 5.8.x before 5.8.7 allows privilege escalation because of incorrect reference counting (caused by gate page mishandling) of the struct page that backs the vsyscall page. The result is a refcount underflow. This can be triggered by any 64-bit process that can use ptrace() or process_vm_readv(), aka CID-9fa2dd946743.
A backporting error was discovered in the Linux stable/longterm kernel 4.4.x through 4.4.190, 4.9.x through 4.9.190, 4.14.x through 4.14.141, 4.19.x through 4.19.69, and 5.2.x through 5.2.11. Misuse of the upstream "x86/ptrace: Fix possible spectre-v1 in ptrace_get_debugreg()" commit reintroduced the Spectre vulnerability that it aimed to eliminate.
A flaw was found in the way PTRACE_TRACEME functionality was handled in the Linux kernel. The kernel's implementation of ptrace can inadvertently grant elevated permissions to an attacker who can then abuse the relationship between the tracer and the process being traced. This flaw could allow a local, unprivileged user to increase their privileges on the system or cause a denial of service.