fpregs_state_valid in arch/x86/include/asm/fpu/internal.h in the Linux kernel, when GCC 9 is used, allows context-dependent attackers to cause a denial of service (memory corruption) or possibly have unspecified other impact because of incorrect fpu_fpregs_owner_ctx caching, as demonstrated by mishandling of signal-based non-cooperative preemption in Go 1.14 prereleases on amd64.
OpenBSD allows local users to escalate to root because a check for LD_LIBRARY_PATH in setuid programs can be defeated by setting a very small RLIMIT_DATA resource limit. When executing chpass or passwd (which are setuid root), _dl_setup_env in ld.so tries to strip LD_LIBRARY_PATH from the environment, but fails when it cannot allocate memory. Thus, the attacker is able to execute their own library code as root.
OpenBSD, in a non-default configuration where S/Key or YubiKey authentication is enabled, allows local users to become root by leveraging membership in the auth group. This occurs because root's file can be written to /etc/skey or /var/db/yubikey, and need not be owned by root.
libc in OpenBSD allows authentication bypass via the -schallenge username, as demonstrated by smtpd, ldapd, or radiusd. This is related to gen/auth_subr.c and gen/authenticate.c in libc (and login/login.c and xenocara/app/xenodm/greeter/verify.c).
xlock in OpenBSD allows local users to gain the privileges of the auth group by providing a LIBGL_DRIVERS_PATH environment variable, because xenocara/lib/mesa/src/loader/loader.c mishandles dlopen.